CNC Milling Machine

Table of Contents

CNC Milling Machine

CNC Milling Machines are machine operated cutting tools that are programmed and managed by Computer Numerical Control (CNC) systems to accurately remove materials from a workpiece. The end result of the machining process is a specific part or product that is created using a Computer Aided Design (CAD) software.

Noted: there are 3 axis, (3+1) or 4 axis, (3+2) or 5 axis cnc milling machine, and the most popular is 3 axis machine which can machine most of parts.

Operation types of CNC Milling Machine

During the cnc milling processes, a variety of operations may be performed to the workpiece to yield the desired part shape. The following types of operations are each defined by the type of cutter used and the path of that cutter to remove material from the workpiece for a cnc milling machine.

Source:https://www.custompartnet.com/wu/milling

  • End milling – An end mill makes either peripheral or slot cuts, determined by the step-over distance, across the workpiece in order to machine a specified feature, such as a profile, slot, pocket, or even a complex surface contour. The depth of the feature may be machined in a single pass or may be reached by machining at a smaller axial depth of cut and making multiple passes.
End milling operation (Pocket milling)
  • Chamfer milling – A chamfer end mill makes a peripheral cut along an edge of the workpiece or a feature to create an angled surface, known as a chamfer. This chamfer, typically with a 45 degree angle, can be machined on either the exterior or interior of a part and can follow either a straight or curved path.
Chamfer milling operation
  • Face milling – A face mill machines a flat surface of the workpiece in order to provide a smooth finish. The depth of the face, typically very small, may be machined in a single pass or may be reached by machining at a smaller axial depth of cut and making multiple passes.
Face milling operation
  • Drilling – A drill enters the workpiece axially and cuts a hole with a diameter equal to that of the tool. A drilling operation can produce a blind hole, which extends to some depth inside the workpiece, or a through hole, which extends completely through the workpiece.
Drilling operation
  • Boring – A boring tool enters the workpiece axially and cuts along an internal surface to form different features. The boring tool is a single-point cutting tool, which can be set to cut the desired diameter by using an adjustable boring head. Boring is commonly performed after drilling a hole in order to enlarge the diameter or obtain more precise dimensions.
Boring operation
  • Counterboring – An counterbore tool enters the workpiece axially and enlarges the top portion of an existing hole to the diameter of the tool. Counterboring is often performed after drilling to provide space for the head of a fastener, such as a bolt, to sit below the surface of a part. The counterboring tool has a pilot on the end to guide it straight into the existing hole.
Counterboring operation
  • Countersinking – A countersink tool enters the workpiece axially and enlarges the top portion of an existing hole to a cone-shaped opening. Countersinking is often performed after drilling to provide space for the head of a fastener, such as a screw, to sit flush with the workpiece surface. Common included angles for a countersink include 60, 82, 90, 100, 118, and 120 degrees.
Countersinking operation  
  • Reaming – A reamer enters the workpiece axially and enlarges an existing hole to the diameter of the tool. Reaming removes a minimal amount of material and is often performed after drilling to obtain both a more accurate diameter and a smoother internal finish.
Reaming operation
  • Tapping – A tap enters the workpiece axially and cuts internal threads into an existing hole. The existing hole is typically drilled by the required tap drill size that will accommodate the desired tap. Threads may be cut to a specified depth inside the hole (bottom tap) or the complete depth of a through hole (through tap).
Tapping operation

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