6061 Aluminum Alloy

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6061 Aluminum Alloy

What is 6061 aluminum alloy

6061 aluminum alloy is a high-quality aluminum alloy product produced by heat treatment and pre-stretching process.


6061 aluminum is a heat-treated hardenable alloy with good formability, weldability, machinability, and moderate strength, which can maintain good operability after annealing. The main alloying elements of 6061 aluminum are Magnesium and silicon, and form the Mg2Si phase. If it contains a certain amount of manganese and chromium, it can neutralize the bad effects of iron; sometimes a small amount of copper or zinc is added to improve the strength of the alloy without significantly reducing its corrosion resistance; there is also a small amount of conductive material. copper to offset the adverse effects of titanium and iron on electrical conductivity; zirconium or titanium can refine grains and control recrystallization; in order to improve machinability, lead and bismuth can be added. Mg2Si is solid-dissolved in aluminum, which makes the alloy have artificial aging hardening function.

What is 6061 aluminium alloy used for?

6061-T651 is the main alloy of 6061 aluminum alloy. Although its strength cannot be compared with 2XXX series or 7XXX series, its magnesium and silicon alloys have many characteristics, excellent processing performance, excellent welding characteristics, electroplating, and good resistance. Corrosion, high toughness and no deformation after processing, dense material without defects and easy to polish, easy to color film, excellent oxidation effect and other excellent characteristics.

Typical uses of 6061 aluminum alloy: 

  • 1. The application of strips is widely used in decoration, packaging, construction, transportation, electronics, aviation, aerospace, weapons and other industries.
  • 2. Aerospace aluminum is used to make aircraft skins, fuselage frames, beams, rotors, propellers, fuel tanks, siding and landing gear struts, as well as rocket forging rings, spacecraft siding, etc.
  • 3. Aluminum for transportation is used as the body structure material of automobiles, subway vehicles, railway passenger cars, high-speed passenger cars, doors and windows, shelves, automobile engine parts, air conditioners, radiators, body panels, wheel hubs and ships.
  • 4. Aluminum material for packaging All-aluminum pop-top can materials are mainly used as metal packaging materials in the form of sheets and foils, which are made into cans, lids, bottles, barrels and packaging foils. Widely used in beverages, food, cosmetics, medicines, cigarettes, industrial products and other packaging.
  • 5. Aluminum for printing is mainly used to make PS plate. Aluminum-based PS plate is a new type of material in the printing industry, which is used for automatic plate making and printing.
  • 6. aluminum alloy for architectural decoration Aluminum alloy is widely used in building frame, doors and windows, ceiling, decorative surface, etc. because of its good corrosion resistance, sufficient strength, excellent process performance and welding performance. Such as various building doors and windows, aluminum profiles for curtain walls, aluminum curtain wall panels, profiled panels, checkered panels, color-coated aluminum panels, etc.
  • 7. Aluminum for electronic appliances is mainly used in various busbars, wires, conductors, electrical components, refrigerators, air conditioners, cables and other fields. Specifications: round bar, square bar Representative uses include aerospace fixtures, electrical fixtures, and communications.

1. 6061 aluminum alloy element

The main alloying elements of 6061 aluminum alloy are magnesium and silicon, and form the Mg2Si phase. If it contains a certain amount of manganese and chromium, it can neutralize the bad effects of iron; sometimes a small amount of copper or zinc is added to improve the strength of the alloy without significantly reducing its corrosion resistance; there is also a small amount of conductive material. copper to offset the adverse effects of titanium and iron on electrical conductivity; zirconium or titanium can refine grains and control recrystallization; in order to improve machinability, lead and bismuth can be added. Mg2Si is solid-dissolved in aluminum, which makes the alloy have artificial aging hardening function. The main alloying elements in 6061 aluminum alloy are magnesium and silicon, which have medium strength, good corrosion resistance, weldability, and good oxidation effect.

2. the characteristics of magnesium aluminum 6061

Magnesium-aluminum 6061-T651 is the main alloy of the 6-series alloy, and it is a high-quality aluminum alloy product that has undergone heat treatment and pre-stretching. It has excellent characteristics such as easy coloring film and excellent oxidation effect.
Main application: Widely used in various industrial structural parts that require a certain strength and high corrosion resistance, such as manufacturing trucks, tower buildings, ships, trams, railway vehicles.

3. Typical use of 6061 aluminum alloy

Typical uses of 6061 include aerospace fixtures, electrical fixtures, communications, and are also widely used in automated mechanical parts, precision machining, mold manufacturing, electronics and precision instruments, SMT, PC board solder carriers, etc.

Aluminum alloy basic state code:

F Free machining state Applicable to products with special requirements for work hardening and heat treatment conditions during the forming process, the mechanical properties of the products in this state are not specified (uncommon)

O Annealed Condition For processed products fully annealed for minimum strength (occasionally)

H Work hardening state It is suitable for products whose strength is increased by work hardening. After work hardening, the product may undergo (or not) additional heat treatment to reduce the strength (generally non-heat treatment strengthened materials)

W Solution heat treatment state An unstable state, only suitable for alloys that are naturally aged at room temperature after solution heat treatment, this state code only indicates that the product is in the natural aging stage (uncommon)

T heat treatment state (different from F, O, H state) It is suitable for products that are stable after heat treatment (or without) work hardening. The T code must be followed by one or more Arabic numerals (usually for heat-treated reinforced materials). The state code behind our common non-heat-treated reinforced aluminum alloys is generally the letter H plus two digits.

Such as 1100 H14. The following briefly introduces the meaning of the following status codes.

The letter H is usually followed by two digits: The first digit indicates the method of work hardening.​​

The first digit after H is: 1, 2, 3, 4
That is, H1* H1* represents simple work hardening treatment
H2* H2* means work hardening and incomplete annealing
H3* H3* means work hardening and stabilization
H4* H4* means work hardening and painting treatment

The second digit indicates the degree of hardening achieved by the material.
The second digits after H are: 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9
Both H*1 hardness between 0 and 2
H*2 1/4 hard
H*3 Hardness between 2 and 4
H*4 1/2 Hard H*5 Hardness between 4 and 6
H*6 3/4 Hard H*7 Hardness between 6 and 8
H*8 full hard state H*9 super hard state

There are not many cases where H is followed by three numbers, only a few. H111 indicates a moderate amount of work hardening after final annealing. H112 indicates products suitable for hot forming. H116 means products made of 5*** series alloys with magnesium content ≥ 4.0%.)

The state code behind our common heat-treated aluminum alloys is generally the letter T plus one or more Arabic numerals to indicate the subdivision state of T. After T, add 0-10 Arabic numerals to indicate the subdivision state (called TX). condition). The number after the T indicates the heat treatment procedure for the product.​​

T0 After solution heat treatment, it is in the state of natural aging and then cold working. For products that have been cold worked to increase their strength.

T1 is cooled by the high temperature forming process and then naturally aged to a substantially stable state. It is suitable for products that are not cold processed after being cooled by the high temperature forming process (can be straightened and leveled, but do not affect the limit of mechanical properties).

T2 is cooled by the high temperature forming process, and then naturally aged to a basically stable state after cold working. It is suitable for cold working, or straightening and leveling to increase the strength of products after cooling by high temperature forming process.

T3 After solution heat treatment, cold working is carried out, and then it is naturally aged to a basically stable state. It is suitable for products that are cold worked, or straightened and leveled to increase strength after solution heat treatment.

T4 After solution heat treatment, it is naturally aged to a basically stable state. It is suitable for products that are not subjected to cold working after solution heat treatment (straightening and leveling can be carried out, but do not affect the limit of mechanical properties), and then natural aging products.

T5 is the state in which it is cooled by the high temperature forming process and then artificially aged. It is suitable for products that are cooled by high temperature forming process without cold working (straightening and leveling can be carried out, but do not affect the limit of mechanical properties), and then artificially aged.

T6 The state of artificial aging after solution heat treatment. It is suitable for products that are not subjected to cold working after solution heat treatment (straightening and leveling can be carried out, but do not affect the limit of mechanical properties), and then artificially aged.

T7 The state of artificial aging after solution heat treatment. It is suitable for products whose strength exceeds the peak point on the aging curve during artificial aging in order to obtain some important characteristics after solution heat treatment.

T8 After solution heat treatment, it is cold worked and then artificially aged. It is suitable for the production of cold working, or straightening and leveling to improve the strength of the product.

T9 The state of artificial aging after solution heat treatment and then cold working. It is suitable for products whose strength is improved by cold working.

T10 After cooling from the high temperature forming process, it is cold worked and then artificially aged. It is suitable for products that have been cold worked, or straightened and leveled to improve product strength. T state and TXXX state (except stress relief state) Add an Arabic numeral after the TX state code (called TXX state), or add two Arabic numerals (called TXXX state), indicating that the product characteristics have been significantly changed ( Such as mechanical properties, corrosion resistance, etc.) specific process state.

T42 is suitable for products whose natural aging reaches a fully stable state after solid solution heat treatment from O or F state, and also applies to products whose mechanical properties reach T42 state after heat treatment of processed products in any state by the buyer.

T62 It is suitable for products that enter artificial aging after solid solution heat treatment from O or F state, and also applies to products whose mechanical properties reach T62 state after heat treatment of processed products in any state by the buyer.

T73 is suitable for products that have been aged to achieve the specified mechanical properties and stress corrosion resistance performance indicators after solution heat treatment. T74 has the same state definition as T73. The tensile strength of this state is greater than that of the T73 state, but less than that of the T76 state.

T76 has the same state definition as T73. The tensile strength of this state is higher than that of T73,
In the T74 state, the stress corrosion cracking resistance is lower than that of the T73 and T74 states, respectively, but the exfoliation corrosion resistance is still better.

T7X2 is suitable for products whose mechanical properties and corrosion resistance have reached T7X state after artificial aging treatment after solid solution heat treatment from O or F state. T81 is suitable for products that are subjected to about 1% cold working deformation to increase the strength after solution heat treatment, and then artificially aged.​​

T87 is suitable for products that are subjected to about 7% cold working deformation to increase the strength after solution heat treatment, and then artificially aged.​​

Stress Relief Condition Add “51”, or “510”, or “511” or “52” or “54” after the above TX or TXX or TXXX condition code to indicate the product condition code that has undergone stress relief treatment.

TX51 TXX51 TXXX51 Suitable for thick plates, rolled or cold-finished bars and die forgings, forged rings or rolled rings that are drawn to a specified amount after solution heat treatment or cooling from a high temperature forming process, these products are drawn Straightening is not performed afterward. The permanent deformation of thick plates is 1.5%~3%; the permanent deformation of rolled or cold-finished bars is 1%~3%; the permanent deformation of die forgings or rolled rings is 1%~5% . The permanent deformation of extruded rods, shapes and pipes is 1% to 3%; the permanent deformation of drawn pipes is 1.5% to 3%.

TX511 TXX511 TXXX511 For extruded rods, shapes and tubes, and drawn tubes that are stretched to specified amounts after solution heat treatment or cooling from a high temperature forming process, these products can be slightly straightened after stretching to meet the standard tolerance.

TX52 TXX52 TXXX52 It is suitable for products with 1%~5% permanent deformation after solution heat treatment or cooling from high temperature forming process, and stress relief through compression.

TX54 TXX54 TXXX54 It is suitable for die forgings in which the stress is relieved by cold shaping in the final forging die.​​

T6, solution treatment (quenching), artificial aging

T62, solution treated by annealing or F temper, artificially aged

T61 is a special heat treatment state that requires lower strength than T6.

6061 aluminum alloy chemical composition

unit:%
Copper Cu: 0.15~0.4
Manganese Mn:0.15
6061 aluminum alloy
6061 aluminum alloy (8 photos)
Magnesium Mg: 0.8~1.2
Zinc Zn: 0.25
Chromium Cr: 0.04~0.35
Titanium Ti: 0.15
Silicon Si: 0.4~0.8
Iron Fe :≤0.7
Aluminum Al : Allowance

6061 aluminum alloy mechanical properties

  1. The ultimate tensile strength of 6061 is above 205 MPa

  2. Compressive yield strength 55.2 MPa

  3. Elasticity coefficient 68.9 GPa

  4. Bending ultimate strength 228 MPa

  5. Bending Yield Strength 103 MPa

Heat treatment

  • 1. Rapid annealing: the heating temperature is 350-410℃; the holding time is between 30-120min depending on the effective thickness of the material; air or water cooling. 
  • 2 High temperature annealing: the heating temperature is 350~500℃; when the thickness of the finished product is ≥6mm, the holding time is 10~30min and less than 6mm, until the heat penetrates; the air is cold. 
  • 3 Low temperature annealing: heating temperature 150 ~ 250 ℃; holding time 2 ~ 3h; air or water cooling. Homogenization: 570 degrees Celsius, heat preservation for 7 hours, air cooling.


Remind: the density of 6061 aluminum alloy is 2800kg/m^3

Corresponding grade in different countries

  • China: 6061 LD30 GB/T 3190-2008

  • ISO: AlMg1SiCu ISO 209.1-1989

  • Japanese standard: A6061 JIS H4000-1999 JIS H4040-1999

  • Non-standard: 65032 IS 733-2001 IS 737-2001

  • EN: EN AW-6061/AlMg1SiCu EN 573-3-1994

  • German standard: AlMgSi1Cu/3.3211 DIN 1725.1-1986/W-Nr

  • French standard: 6061 A-GSUC NF A50-411 NF A50-451

  • British Standard: 6061 N20/H20 BS 1470-1988

  • American Standard: 6061/A96061 AA/UNS

Calculation

  1. Aluminum plate weight (kg) = 0.00000275 × thickness × width × length unit (mm)
  2. Aluminum tube weight (kg)=0.00000275×(outer diameter×outer diameter-inner diameter×inner diameter)×3.14/4×length unit (mm)
  3. Aluminum bar weight calculation formula (kg) = 0.00000275 × 3.14 × radius × radius × length unit (mm)

FAQ:

Q: Is 6061 aluminum alloy good?

6061 aluminum alloy is a good choice for many applications. It has good corrosion resistance, good formability, and excellent weldability.

The corrosion resistance of 6061 aluminum alloy is very good. This means that it is not likely to corrode in the environment where it is used. The formability of 6061 aluminum alloy is also good. This means that it can be easily shaped in most processes including bending and forming operations. The weldability of 6061 aluminum alloy is excellent and this means that it can be easily joined to other metals by welding without having to worry about the material degrading as a result of the process.

Q: Is 6061 aluminum alloy stronger than steel?

The answer to this question is not straightforward. There are different grades of aluminum alloys, and they vary in strength. The 6061 alloy is stronger than the 6063 alloy, but it is not as strong as steel.


The strength of an aluminum alloy is not the same as that of steel, because it is less dense. However, with a higher tensile strength, aluminum alloys are more resistant to fatigue and corrosion than steel.

Q:How strong is 6061 aluminum?

6061 aluminum alloy is a strong and lightweight metal that is used in the manufacturing of aircraft, automotive, and marine parts. It is also used in the production of architectural panels, roofing, and other building materials.

The 6061 aluminum alloy has a tensile strength of between 40-70 ksi (310-450 MPa). This is one of the highest strengths for aluminum alloys.

Q:Is 6061 aluminum machinable?

The 6061 aluminum alloy is machinable with cnc machining and casting. It can be machined using the same processes as other aluminum alloys.

The 6061 aluminum alloy is a popular alloy due to its high strength and good corrosion resistance. It is used in the manufacture of aircrafts and automobiles, as well as in a number of other industries.

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